Welcome to the Abstract Categorial Grammar Homepage
This page presents the current state of the art of Abstract
Grammars (ACGs). We intend to keep it up-to-date and present items of
nature. As of now here is a list of publications on ACGs.
to Abstract Categorial Grammars: Foundations and main properties.
Slides: day 1,
in Abstract Categorial Grammars: Language theory and linguistic
notes (part 1
2) are available (note that they are currently moving and
might differ from the ESSLLI
2 and 4, day3, day 5
2 and 4, day
files for day 2, day 4, and lecture notes.
Formal Properties of the ACGs and Modeling:
On the Core Mechanisms of ACGs:
- Carl Pollard: Convergent
- Carl Pollard: Higher-Order
- (2008) Makoto
Prefix-Correct Earley Recognizer for Multiple Context-Free Grammars,
TAG+9 2008, the Ninth
International Workshop on Tree Adjoining Grammars and Related Formalisms,
Tübingen, Germany, June 7-8, 2008. (Slides)
- (2003) Reinhard
Lambdas, and Logic. In
Geert-Jan Kruijff and Richard Oehrle, editors, Resource Sensitivity in Binding and
Anaphora, Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy, pages 23-54.
- (2001) Reinhard
Grammars and the Syntax-Semantics Interface. In R. van Rooy and M. Stokhof,
editors, proceedings of the
Thirteenth Amsterdam Colloquium, pages 150-155, Amsterdam.
- (2001) Reinhard
Grammar and Lexical-Functional Grammar. In Miriam Butt and Tracy Holloway
King, editors, proceedings of the
LFG01 Conference, University of Hong Kong, pages
259-279,Stanford CA, 2001. CSLI Publications..
- (1994) Aarne
Ranta. Type Theoretical Grammar. Oxford
University Press, Oxford, 1994. And
work on Grammatical
(former Calligramme team)
is developing a toolkit for testing and parsing with ACG signatures
and lexicons. It is available (with
(README) (example of
a signature and lexicon declaration
It comes with two (compiled code) executables (bycode
executables are also available. They have the same name without the
acgc.opt : a typechecker for ACG signature and
acg.opt: an interpreter to manipulate ACG
signatures, lexicons, and terms (for instance to load signatures and
lexicons, and to check the type of a term wrt to a given abstract
signature, and to compute its corresponding object term). It now can
parse object terms of 2nd order linear ACGs.
How to install it: You can install it the hard way using the
tarball of the sources (all the instructions are in
file. But it is also available as
an OPAM package.
- Install OPAM. Look
- Initialize OPAM. Look
instructions. It will in particular add the binaries installed by
opam made available.
- Install the acgtk package by running:
This will make the two binaries
acg.opt available. These are the native
binaries. Two bytecode executables are also available:
How to use it: Here are three usage examples. There is also
an emacs mode to write acg files. Look at
file and at
the README file for
a basic description of how to install and use it.
- This first example use
the anbncndn.acg file
that exemplifies some langage beyond CFG using TAG. Note the use
the of '
<< ' composition operator in the acg file
to compose the mapping from derivation trees to derived trees
Abs), and from derived trees to strings
lexicon Full =
Yield << Abs.
The second example exemplifies the ambiguities of a CFG
grammar. It comes
Kanazawa's lecture notes (from an example given
and Language Processing, by Daniel Jurafsky and James
Fig. 10.2), third
part. Page number is indicated in the acg
- Compile the grammar running:
This produces a anbncdnd.acgo file.
- Run the
interpreted (possibly in some utility such as
to benefit from readline editing facilites). Then, inside the
interpreted, you can first load the data with
Full parse a+a+a+b+b+b+c+c+c+d+d+d:S;
that will output some abstract term representing the
The third example shows a CFG which produces both ambiguous and
infinite parse trees. The acg file
- You can compile the file running:
- Then run the interpreter acg.opt and type the commands:
load o MK-lecture-example.acgo;
to load the signatures and lexicons, in particular the
and observe you get
to get the datalog program associated with the lexicon
surface query book+the+flight+from+Houston:S;
to get the extensional database and the query associated
to the term.
Other examples are available such as:
- Compile the file:
- In the interpreter, run:
load o Jean-regarde-telescope.acgo;
CFG parse Jean+regarde+un+homme+avec+un+telescope:S;
workshops: the Lambda Calculus and Formal Grammar workshop
How to contact us:
this page. Or you can contact any of the authors in the list above.